As many of you, my regular customers know, we have come under the scrutiny of the FDA for our wording and claims. Here is a small  list of studies to help all understand why I use the essential oils I do in a formula.
  1. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils: Antimicrobial efficacy of five essential oils against oral pathogens: An in vitro study  Conclusion: Peppermint, tea tree and thyme oil can act as an effective intra-canal antiseptic solution against oral pathogens.  Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. Out of 21 essential oils tested, 19 oils showed antibacterial activity against one or more strains. Cinnamon, clove, geranium, lemon, lime, orange and rosemary oils exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Cinnamon oil showed promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, whereas aniseed, eucalyptus and camphor oils were least active against the tested bacteria.  Conclusion: Majority of the oils showed antibacterial activity against the tested strains. However Cinnamon, clove and lime oils were found to be inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Cinnamon oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents. Essential oils to fight superbugs. Essential oils could be a cheap and effective alternative to antibiotics and potentially used to combat drug-resistant hospital superbugs, according to research presented at the Society for General Microbiology's spring meeting in Edinburgh. What Does the Research Say About Essential Oils?     A significant body of research on essential oils has been conducted by the food, flavoring, cosmetics, and tobacco industries. They are most interested in the flavor, mood alteration, and preservative qualities of essential oils. Some of these companies have also conducted extensive research on the toxicity and safety of essential oils. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts.   The MICs of 52 plant oils and extracts obtained by the agar dilution method are shown in Table 1. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at ≤2·0% (v/v). Rosewood, coriander, palmarosa, tea tree, niaouli, peppermint, spearmint, sage and marjoram inhibited all organisms except Ps. aeruginosa at ≤2·0% (v/v). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro . The ten essential oils are: aegle, ageratum, citronella, eucalyptus, geranium, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa, patchouli and peppermint. From 12 to all 22 bacteria tested were inhibited by the essential oils.  All twelve fungi were inhibited by seven oils (aegle, citronella, geranium, lemongrass, orange, palmarosa and patchouli). Eucalyptus and peppermint oils were effective against eleven fungi.  Killing effect of peppermint vapor against pink-slime forming microorganisms. 2. Antiviral Activity of Essential Oils: Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro was tested again constituents from eucalyptus, tea tree, and thyme, These essential oils were able to reduce viral infectivity by >96%. Protective essential oil attenuates influenza virus infection: An in vitro study in MDCK cells.  Conclusion: An essential oil blend significantly attenuates influenza virus PR8 infectivity in vitro without affecting viral binding or cellular internalization in MDCK cells. Oil treated virus continued to express viral mRNAs but had minimal expression of viral proteins, suggesting that the antiviral effect may be due to inhibition of viral protein translation. Susceptibility of Drug-Resistant Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strains to Essential Oils of Ginger, Thyme, Hyssop, and Sandalwood. There was significant reduction of the HSV-1 virus when introduced to the essential oils. Essential oils proven to kill viruses and bacteria. Are essential oils really better than chemical cleaners?  A study in the journal Molecules explains that these plant essences are widely accepted for their antimicrobial qualities, and have been for a long time. Essential oils destroy microbes like bacteria and viruses with the compounds they contain – which include phenylpropanoids and terpenes, explains the Phytotherapy Research journal.   Efficacy of plant products against herpetic infections.  Selected Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Candida spp.: In Vitro Study on Clinical and Food-Borne Isolates. Thank you, Kathleen